An Introduction to Theories of Personality (pdf) by Robert B. Ewen
This hook is an introduction to the field of personality theory. The goals are to provide a foundation for further study, to stimulate enthusiasm for this important and provocative area, and to promote interest in the primary sources on which this secondary one is based. I have tried to achieve these objectives in tire following ways:
First-Hand Quotations. To familiarize students with the w ritings of the famous theorists, numerous quotations have been integrated within the text. Also, paperback reprints are cited as well as more standard editions. Paperbacks make it possible to acquire a scholarly library at moderate cost, and my hope is that tire somewhat awkward referencing system will facilitate comparisons with (and promote interest in) the original sources.
Capsule Summaries. Most personality theorists are fond (perhaps too fond) of neologisms. To help students learn tire many definitions presented in each chapter. Capsule Summaries of these concepts are included throughout the text.
Theoretical Applications. In my opinion, some knowledge of the major applications of a personality theory helps to clarify its more abstruse concepts. I have therefore included an introduction to such applications as dream interpretation, psychopathology, psychotherapy, work, religion, education, literature, and areas of importance to a particular psychologist (e.g.. Allport and prejudice).
Common Framework. To facilitate comparisons among the various theories, each chapter follows a common framework (described in chapter 1). and important similarities and differences among the theories are emphasized throughout the book. Each chapter stands on its ow n. however, so the instructor may select virtually any combination for inclusion in a given course.
Coverage. The coverage of this text was influenced by two polls of those who teach theories of personality. According to these polls (N= 38). this book includes the II most important theorists plus four of the following five.
Interest and Readability. I have tried to maintain a readable and interesting style, without sacrificing accuracy or scholarliness. I have begun most chapters with a significant anecdote from the theorist’s life, and used this to lead into his or her theory.
I have avoided the use of “he” to refer to people in general. But I do not feel justified in rewriting history. so I have left such pronouns intact in the firsthand quotations. At times I have made minor changes in the quotations, such as adding or deleting a comma or interchanging a capital and a small letter, without inserting an ellipsis or brackets. However, more major alterations have been so denoted.
Study Questions. Study questions are presented at the end of each chapter dealing with a personality theory (that is, chapters 2-16). These questions are designed to encourage critical thinking about the material, and to stimulate discussion and debate about important issues. To make these questions more user-friendly, case material has been placed in a brief Appendix for ready reference, whereas comments and suggestions appear in a “help” section that immediately follows the study questions in each chapter. Many of the study questions deal with everyday life, including such current issues as terrorism and dishonesty by corporate executives, so students can better appreciate the material. The study questions should therefore be regarded as an integral part of each chapter.
Glossary of Theorists. To facilitate further study, some personality theorists whose work is not included in Chapters 2-16 are mentioned in a glossary of theorists that follows the glossary of terms.
Glossary of Terms. In addition to the Capsule Summaries, there is a glossary of terms at the end of the book. Page references indicate where each term is first discussed.
Updating the Seventh Edition. The previous edition involved substantial changes in organization and content. This seventh edition represents a calm following the storm. There are two major goals: to discuss important personal applications of personality theory, and to provide an interactive web site that students can use and learn from.
Theories of personality are much more than abstract ideas and constructs. They provide valuable guidelines that have helped me make better decisions and live a more fulfilling life. In previous editions. I was wary of discussing such personal issues: this is a textbook, not a self-help book. Now that I am approaching the end of a long career. I have decided that it is time to share my enthusiasm for this aspect of personality theories with my readers. People who lack self-knowledge, who do not understand their real (albeit unconscious) motives and beliefs, are more likely to make bad choices that hurt themselves and others.
And such individuals may reach positions of leadership, where their misguided decisions are likely to cause considerable harm. Theories of personality offer effective remedies, if one is willing to look there. I have placed this new material at the beginning of Chapter 17. where those who do not wish to use it can omit it. I believe that this new section will provide students with an interesting and practical conclusion: “Personality theory is not just a list of complicated terms formulated by psychologists from the distant past. These ideas can actually help me. if I take the time and trouble to understand and make use of them.” I also have a dream that academic psychologists will someday realize that they have seriously underemphasized the importance of personality theories (not one of the many divisions of the American Psychological Association is devoted solely to this topic), though I admit that I am considerably less sanguine about this aspect.
The second goal of this revision is less controversial. For the first time, there is an interactive web site where students can (among other things) take practice test questions and further pursue the study questions at the end of each chapter.
One thorny issue involves a sixth perspective: the biological perspective. This is an important perspective in psychology, but it is less important as an aspect of personality theory. I find it difficult to believe that beginning personality theory students should be asked to study in detail neurons, synapses, lobes of the brain, parts of the nervous system, etc. I have therefore mentioned this perspective in the concluding chapter and noted that students can (and should) learn more about it in courses that deal with more general aspects of psychology.
Three people warrant my heartfelt thanks for their substantial help with previous editions: Dr. Eugene Sachs. Dr. Olaf W. Millert. and Lawrence Erlbaum. I would also like to thank Paul Dukes. Richard Tressider. and Dawn Shaw for their considerable assistance with this edition.
THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE
- CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Theories of Personality
- CHAPTER 2 SIGMUND FREUD
- CHAPTER 3 CARL GUSTAV JUNG
- CHAPTER 5 KAREN HORNEY
Neurosis and Human Growth
- CHAPTER 6 ERICH FROMM
The Escape from Freedom
- CHAPTER 7 HARRY STACK SULUVAN
The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry
THE HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE
- CHAPTER 9 CARL R. ROGERS
Self-Actualization Theory (I)
- CHAPTER 10 ABRAHAM H. MASLOW
Self-Actualization Theory (II)
- CHAPTER 11 ROLLO MAY
THE TRAIT PERSPECTIVE
- CHAPTER 12 GORDON W. ALLPORT
- CHAPTER 13 RAYMOND В. CATTELL AND OTHERS
Factor-Analytic Trait Theory
THE BEHAVIORIST PERSPECTIVE
- CHAPTER 14 B. F. SKINNER
THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
- CHAPTER 15 GEORGE A. KELLY
The Psychology of Personal Constructs
- CHAPTER 16 ALBERT BANDURA
- CHAPTER 17 CONCLUSION
Perspectives and Postscript
CASE MATERIAL FOR USE WITH THE STUDY QUESTIONS
Glossary of Theorists
Glossary of Terms
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