Man’s Search For Himself (pdf) by Rollo May, Ph.D.
To venture causes anxiety, but not to venture is to lose one’s self. . . . And to venture in the highest sense is precisely to become conscious of one’s self.
The one goeth to his neighbor because he seeketh himself, and the other because he would fain lose himself. Your bad love to yourselves maketh solitude a prison to you.
ONE of the few blessings of living in an age of anxiety is that we are forced to become aware of ourselves. When our society, in its time of upheaval in standards and values, can give us no clear picture of “what we are and what we ought to be,” as Matthew Arnold puts it, we are thrown back on the search for ourselves. The painful insecurity on all sides gives us new incentive to ask, Is there perhaps some important source of guidance and strength we have overlooked?
I realize, of course, that this is not generally called a blessing. People ask, rather, How can anyone attain inner integration in such a disintegrated world? Or they question, How can anyone undertake the long development toward self-realization in a time when practically nothing is certain, either in the present or the future?
Most thoughtful people have pondered these questions. The psychotherapist has no magic answers. To be sure, the new light which depth-psychology throws on the buried motives which make us think and feel and act the way we do should be of crucial help in one’s search for one’s self. But there is something in addition to his technical training and his own self-understanding which gives an author the courage to rush in where angels fear to tread and offer his ideas and experience on the difficult questions which we shall confront in this free ebook.
This something is the wisdom the psychotherapist gains in working with people who are striving to overcome their problems. He has the extraordinary’, if often taxing, privilege of accompanying persons through their intimate and profound struggles to gain new integration. And dull indeed would be the therapist who did not get glimpses into what blinds people in our day from themselves, and what blocks them in finding values and goals they can affirm.
Alfred Adler once said, referring to the children’s school he had founded in Vienna, “The pupils teach the teachers.” It is always thus in psychotherapy. And I do not see how the therapist can be anything but deeply grateful for what he is daily taught about the issues and dignity of life by those who are called his patients.
I am also grateful to my colleagues for the many things I have learned from them on these points; and to the students and faculty of Mills College in California for their rich and stimulating reactions when I discussed some of these ideas with them in my Centennial lectures there on “Personal Integrity in an Age of Anxiety.”
This free ebook is not a substitute for psychotherapy. Nor is it a self-help ebook in the sense that it promises cheap and easy cures overnight. But in another worthy and profound sense every good book is a self-help book—it helps the reader, through seeing himself and his own experiences reflected in the book, to gain new light on his own problems of personal integration. I hope this is that kind of book.
In these chapters we shall look not only to the new insights of psychology on the hidden levels of the self, but also to the wisdom of those who through the ages, in the fields of literature, philosophy, and ethics, have sought to understand how man can best meet his insecurity and personal crises, and turn them to constructive uses. Our aim is to discover ways in which we can stand against the insecurity of our time, to find a center of strength within ourselves, and as far as we can, to point the way toward achieving values and goals which can be depended upon in a day when very little is secure.
NEW YORK CITY
Part l OUR PREDICAMENT
1. The Loneliness and Anxiety of Modern Man
The Hollow People
Anxiety and the Threat to the Self
What Is Anxiety?
2. The Roots of Our Malady
The Loss of the Center of Values in Our Society
The Loss of the Sense of Self
The Loss of Our Language for Personal Communication “Little We See in Nature That Is Ours”
The Loss of the Sense of Tragedy
Part 2 REDISCOVERING SELFHOOD
3. The Experience of Becoming a Person
Consciousness of Self—the Unique Mark of Man
Self-Contempt, a Substitute for Self-Worth
Consciousness of Self Is Not Introversion
The Experiencing of One’s Body and Feelings
4. The Struggle to Be
Cutting the Psychological Umbilical Cord
The Struggle against Mother
The Struggle against One’s Own Dependency
Stages in Consciousness of Self
Part 3 THE GOALS OF INTEGRATION
5. Freedom and Inner Strength
The Man Who Was Put in a Cage
Hatred and Resentment as the Price of Denied Freedom
What Freedom Is Not
What Freedom Is
Freedom and Structure
“Choosing One’s Self’
6. The Creative Conscience
Adam and Prometheus
Religion—Source of Strength or Weakness?
The Creative Use of the Past
The Person’s Power to Do the Valuing
7. Courage, the Virtue of Maturity
Courage to Be One’s Self
A Preface to Love
Courage to See the Truth
8. Man, the Transcender of Time
Man Does Not Live by the Clock Alone
The Pregnant Moment
“In the Light of Eternity”
No Matter What the Age
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