The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning

The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning PDFThe Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning Etited by Keith J. Holyoak & Robert G. Morrison 

A few decades ago, when the science of cognition was in its infancy, the early textbooks on cognition began with perception and attention and ended with memory.

So-called higher-level cognition—the mysterious, complicated realm of thinking and reasoning—was simply left out. Things changed—any good cognitive text (and there arc many) devotes several chapters to topics such as categorization, various types of reasoning, judgment and decision making, and problem solving.

As the new century began, we noticed that unlike fields such as perception or memory, the field of thinking and reasoning lacked a true Handbook—a book meant to be kept close “at hand” by those involved in the field, particularly those new to it. In response, we edited the Cambridge Handbook of Drinking and Reasoning (200$). Our aim was to bring together top researchers to write chapters each of which summarized the basic concepts and findings for a major topic, sketch its history, and give a sense of the directions in which research is currently heading.

The Handbook provided quick overviews for experts in each topic area, and more important for experts in allied topic areas (as few researchers can keep up with the scientific literature over the full breadth of the field of thinking and reasoning). Even more crucially, this Handbook was meant to provide an entry point into the field for the next generation of researchers, by providing a text for use in classes on thinking and reasoning designed for graduate students and upper-level undergraduates.


Thinking and Reasoning: A Reader’s Guide Keith J. Holyoak and Robert G. Morrison

Part One  General Approaches to Thinking and Reasoning

  •  Normative Systems: Logic, Probability, and Rational Choice
  •  Bayesian Inference
  • Knowledge Representation
  •  Computational Models of Higher Cognition
  •  Neurocognitive Methods in Higher Cognition
  •  Mental Function as Genetic Expression: Emerging Insights From Cognitive Neurogenetics

Part Two  Deductive, Inductive, and Abductive Reasoning

  • Dual-Process Theories of Deductive Reasoning: Facts and Fallacies
  •  Inference in Mental Models
  •  Similarity
  •  Concepts and Categories: Memory. Meaning, and Metaphysics
  • Causal Learning
  •  Analogy and Relational Reasoning
  •  Explanation and Abductivc Inference
  •  Rational Argument

Part Three  Judgment and Decision Making

  •  Decision Making
  •  Judgmental Heuristics: A Historical Overview
  •  Cognitive Hierarchies and Emotions in Behavioral Game Theory
  •  Moral Judgment
  • Motivated Thinking

Part Four  Problem Solving, Intelligence, and Creative Thinking

  • Problem Solving
  • On the Distinction Between Rationality and Intelligence: Implications for Understanding Individual Differences in Reasoning
  •  Cognition and the Creation of ldeas
  •  Insight
  •  Genius

Part Five  Ontogeny, Phylogeny, Language, and Culture

  •  Development of Thinking in Children
  •  The Human Enigma
  •  New Perspectives on Language and Thought
  •  Thinking in Societies and Cultures

Part Six  Modes of Thinking

  •  Development of Quantitative Thinking
  • Visuospatial Thinking
  •  Gesture in Thought
  •  Impact of Aging on Thinking
  • The Cognitive Neuroscience of Thought Disorder in Schizophrenia

Part Seven  Thinking in Practice

  •  Scientific Thinking and Reasoning
  •  Legal Reasoning
  •  Medical Reasoning and Thinking
  •  Thinking in Business
  •  Musical Thought
  •  Learning to Think: Cognitive Mechanisms of Knowledge Transfer
  • Index

Language: English
Pages: 865