Psychology : Core Concept by Philip G. Zimbardo, Robert L. Johnson, Vivian McCann – Seventh Edition pdf
There is one simple formula for academic success, and the following demonstration will show you what it is. Study this array of letters for a few seconds:
Now, without peeking, write down as many of the letters as you can (in the correct order).
Most people remember about five to seven letters correctly. A few people get them all. How do these exceptional few do it? They find a pattern. (You may have noticed some familiar initials in the array above: IBM, UFO, FBI, CIA.) Finding the pattern greatly eases the task because you can draw on material that is already stored in memory. In this case, all that needs to be remembered are four “chunks” of information instead of 12 unrelated letters.
The same principle applies to material you study for your psychology class. If you try to remember each piece of information as a separate item, you will have a difficult time. But if instead you look for patterns, you will find your task greatly simplified— and much more enjoyable.
USING PSYCHOLOGY TO LEARN PSYCHOLOGY
So, how can you identify the patterns? Your friendly authors have developed several learning features that will make meaningful patterns in the text stand out clearly:
Core Concepts We have organized each major section of every chapter around a single big idea called a Core Concept. For example, one of the four Core Concepts in Chapter 5, Memory, says:
Core Concept 5.4
Human memory is an information-processing system that works constructively to encode, store, and retrieve information.
The Core Concept, then, becomes the central theme around which about 10 pages of material—including several new terms—are organized. As you read each chapter, keeping the Core Concept in mind will help you encode the new terms and ideas related to that concept, store them in your memory, and later retrieve them when you are being tested. To borrow an old saying, the Core Concepts become the “forest,” while the details of the chapter become the “trees.”
Key Questions Each Core Concept is introduced by a Key Question that also serves as a main heading in the chapter. Here, for example, is a Key Question from the Memory chapter:
Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?
Key Questions such as this will help you anticipate the most important point, or the Core Concept, in the section. In fact, the Core Concept always provides a brief answer to the Key Question. Think of the Key Question as the high beams on your car, helping you focus on what lies ahead. Our Key Questions should also serve as guides for you in posing questions of your own about what you are reading.
Both the Key Questions and the Core Concepts later reappear as organizing features of the Chapter Summary.
Psychology Matters Psychology has many captivating connections with events in the news and in everyday life, and we have explored one of these connections at the end of each major section in every chapter. To illustrate, here are some examples from the Memory chapter:
• Would You Want a “Photographic” Memory?
• “Flashbulb” Memories: Where Were You When … ?
• On the Tip of Your Tongue
Such connections—practical, down to earth, and fascinating—will help you link your study of psychology with your real-life experiences. They will also help you critically evaluate many of the psychological ideas you encounter in the media—as when you see news stories that begin with “psychological research shows that…” By the end of this course, you will become a much wiser consumer of such information.
Psychology Matters: Using Psychology to Learn Psychology A special Psychology Matters section in every chapter explains how you can apply new knowledge from the chapter to make your studying more effective. For example, in Chapter 2, Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and Human Nature, we tell you how to put your understanding of the brain to work for more efficient learning. Similarly, at the end of Chapter 9, Motivation and Emotion, we explain how to use the psychological concept of “flow” to boost your academic motivation. Thus, Using Psychology to Learn Psychology not only reinforces points that you have studied but also brings the material home with immediate and practical applications to your life in college.
Do It Yourself! Throughout the book we have scattered active-learning demonstrations like the one in which you were asked to memorize the letters IBMUFOFBICIA. Besides being fun, these activities have the serious purpose of illustrating important principles discussed in the text. In Chapter 5, for example, one Do It Yourself! box helps you find the capacity of your short-term memory; another lets you test your “photographic memory” ability.
1: Mind. Behavior, and Psychological Science
2: Biopsychology. Neuroscience, and Human Nature Sensation and Perception
3: Learning and Human Nurture
5: Thinking and Intelligence
6: Development Over the Lifespan
7: States of Consciousness
8: Motivation and Emotion
9: Personality: Theories of the Whole Person
10: Social Psychology
11: Psychological Disorders
12: Therapies for Psychological Disorders
13: From Stress to Health and Well-Being
Size: 32.1 Mb
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