Anatomy and Physiology – 2e

Anatomy and Physiology - 2e openstax answers

The units of this Anatomy and Physiology textbook adhere to the scope and sequence followed by most two-semester courses nationwide. The development choices for this textbook were made with the guidance of hundreds of faculty who are deeply involved in teaching this course. These choices led to innovations in art, terminology, career orientation, practical applications, and multimedia-based learning, all with a goal of increasing relevance to students. The Authors strove to make the discipline meaningful and memorable to students, so that they can draw from it a working knowledge that will enrich their future studies.

Unit 1: Levels of Organization
Chapters 1-4 provide students with a basic understanding of human anatomy and physiology, including its language, the
levels of organization, and the basics of chemistry and cell biology. These chapters provide a foundation for the further study
of the body. They also focus particularly on how the body’s regions, important chemicals, and cells maintain homeostasis.
Chapter 1 An Introduction to the Human Body
Chapter 2 The Chemical Level of Organization
Chapter 3 The Cellular Level of Organization
Chapter 4 The Tissue Level of Organization

Unit 2: Support and Movement
In Chapters 5-11, students explore the skin, the largest organ of the body, and examine the body’s skeletal and muscular
systems, following a traditional sequence of topics. This unit is the first to walk students through specific systems of the
body, and as it does so, it maintains a focus on homeostasis as well as those diseases and conditions that can disrupt it.
Chapter 5 The Integumentary System
Chapter 6 Bone and Skeletal Tissue
Chapter 7 The Axial Skeleton
Chapter 8 The Appendicular Skeleton
Chapter 9 Joints
Chapter 10 Muscle Tissue
Chapter 11 The Muscular System

Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control
Chapters 12-17 help students answer questions about nervous and endocrine system control and regulation. In a break with the traditional sequence of topics, the special senses are integrated into the chapter on the somatic nervous system. The chapter on the neurological examination offers students a unique approach to understanding nervous system function using five simple but powerful diagnostic tests.
Chapter 12 Introduction to the Nervous System
Chapter 13 The Anatomy of the Nervous System
Chapter 14 The Somatic Nervous System
Chapter 15 The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter
16 The Neurological Exam
Chapter 17 The Endocrine System

Unit 4: Fluids and Transport
In Chapters 18-21, students examine the principal means of transport for materials needed to support the human body, regulate its internal environment, and provide protection.
Chapter 18 Blood
Chapter 19 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
Chapter 20 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
Chapter 21 The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
In Chapters 22-26, students discover the interaction between body systems and the outside environment for the exchange of materials, the capture of energy, the release of waste, and the overall maintenance of the internal systems that regulate the exchange. The explanations and illustrations are particularly focused on how structure relates to function.
Chapter 22 The Respiratory System
Chapter 23 The Digestive System
Chapter 24 Nutrition and Metabolism
Chapter 25 The Urinary System
Chapter 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
The closing chapters examine the male and female reproductive systems, describe the process of human development and the different stages of pregnancy, and end with a review of the mechanisms of inheritance.
Chapter 27 The Reproductive System
Chapter 28 Development and Genetic Inheritance

Language: English
Format: PDF
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