Neurosurgery has continued to benefit considerably from a wide range of technological advances that have enabled better imaging of central nervous system disease, understanding of disease processes and the consequent development of rational treatments.
Magnetic resonance imaging has now become the standard radiological technique to investigate central nervous system disease, and this has further demystified the diagnostic process in neurosurgery. However, it has entailed a new learning process not only for students, but also for practising clinicians. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has become a routine diagnostic tool as has magnetic resonance angiography.
Improved understanding of the biology of the central nervous system and tumour biology, has led to the introduction of more rational treatment regimes, with improved outcomes. Molecular biology techniques, the introduction of biological therapies including gene therapies, and the development of endovascular surgery have considerably broadened the horizon for the management of a wide range of neurological diseases.
Technological advances in the operating theatre have increased the surgical possibilities, particularly combining stereotactic techniques with microneurosurgery. Our patients have benefited considerably from these advances, and over the next two decades biological and technical advances will continue to provide considerable benefit for even more of our patients.
1 Neurological assessment and examination
2 Neurosurgical investigations
3 Raised intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus
4 Head injuries
5 Traumatic intracranial haematomas
6 Brain tumours
7 Benign brain tumours
8 Pituitary tumours
9 Subarachnoid haemorrhage
10 Stroke / Stephen M. Davis MD, FRACP
11 Developmental abnormalities
12 Infections of the central nervous system
13 Low back pain and leg pain
14 Cervical disc disease and cervical spondylosis
15 Spinal cord compression
16 Spinal injuries
17 Peripheral nerve entrapments, injuries and tumours
18 Facial pain and hemifacial spasm
19 Pain—neurosurgical management
20 Movement disorders—neurosurgical aspects
21 Epilepsy and its neurosurgical aspects / Christine Kilpatrick MD, FRACP
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