The Psychology Book: Big Ideas Simply Explained

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS: PSYCHOLOGY IN THE MAKING

  •  The four temperaments of personality
  •  There is a reasoning soul in this machine
  •  Dormez!
  • Concepts become forces when they resist one another
  •  Be that self which one truly is Soren Kierkegaard
  • Personality is composed of nature and nurture
  •  The laws of hysteria are universal
  •  A peculiar destruction of the internal connections of the psyche
  •  The beginnings of the mental life date from the beginnings of life
  • We know the meaning of “consciousness” so long as no one asks us to define it
  • Adolescence is a new birth
  • 24 hours after learning something, we forget two-thirds of it
  • The intelligence of an individual is not a fixed quantity
  • The unconscious sees the men behind the curtains

BEHAVIORISM: RESPONDING TO OUR ENVIRONMENT

  • The sight of tasty food makes a hungry man’s mouth water
  • Profitless acts are stamped out
  •  Anyone, regardless of their nature, can be trained to be anything
  •  That great God-given maze which is our human world
  • Once a rat has visited our grain sack we can plan on its return
  • Nothing is more natural than for the cat to “love” the rat
  • Learning is just not possible
  • Imprinting cannot be forgotten!
  • Behavior is shaped by positive and negative reinforcement
  • Stop imagining the scene and relax

PSYCHOTHERAPY: THE UNCONSCIOUS DETERMINES BEHAVIOR

  •  The unconscious is the true psychical reality / Sigmund Freud
  •  The neurotic carries a feeling of inferiority with him constantly /Alfred Adler
  • The collective unconscious is made up of archetypes / Carl Jung
  • The struggle between the life and death instincts persists throughout life /
    Melanie Klein
  • The tyranny of the “shoulds” / Karen Homey
  • The superego becomes clear only when it confronts the ego with hostility  / Anna Freud
  • Truth can be tolerated only if you discover it yourself  / Fritz Peris
  • It is notoriously inadequate to take an adopted child into one’s home and love him / Donald Winmcott
  • The unconscious is the discourse of the Other / Jacques Lacan
  •  The good life is a process not a state of being / Carl Rogers
  • What a man can be, he must be / Abraham Maslow
  • Suffering ceases to be suffering at the moment it finds a meaning / Viktor Frank!
  • One does not become fully human painlessly / RolloMay
  •  Rational beliefs create healthy emotional consequences / Albert Ellis
  • The family is the “factory” where people are made / Virginia Satir
  •  Turn on. tune in, drop out / Timothy Leary
  •  Insight may cause blindness / Paul Watzlawick
  •  Madness need not be all breakdown. It may also be break-through / R.D. Laing
  •  Our history does not determine our destiny / Boris Cyrulmk
  •  Only good people get depressed / Dorothy Rowe
  • Fathers are subject to a rule of silence / Quy Corneau

COGNITIVE  PSYCHOLOGY: THE CALCULATING BRAIN

  • Instinct is a dynamic pattern / Wolfgang Kohler
  • Interruption of a task greatly improves its chances of being remembered / Bluma Zeigamik
  • When a baby bears footsteps, an assembly is excited / Donald Hebb
  •  Knowing is a process not a product / Jerome Bruner
  • A man with conviction is a hard man to change / Leon Fesunger
  •  The magical number 7, plus or minus 2 / George Armitage Miller
  • There’s more to the surface than meets the eye / Aaron Beck
  •  We can listen to only one voice at once / Donald Broadbent
  •  Time’s arrow is bent into a loop / Endel Tblving
  • Perception is externally guided hallucination / Roger N. Shepard
  • We are constantly on the lookout for causal connections / Daniel Kahneman
  • Events and emotion are stored in memory together / Gordon H. Bower
  • Emotions are a runaway train  / Paul Ekman
  • Ecstasy is a step into an alternative reality
  • Happy people are extremely social / Martin Seligman
  • What we believe with all our hearts is not necessarily the truth / Elizabeth Loftus
  • The seven sins of memory / Daniel Schacter
  • One is not one’s thoughts / Jon Kabat-Zinn
  • The fear is that biology will debunk all that we hold sacred / Steven Pinker
  •  Compulsive behavior rituals are attempts to control intrusive thoughts / Paul Salkovskis

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY: BEING IN A WORLD OF OTHERS

  • You cannot understand a system until you try to change it/ Kurt Lewin
  • How strong is the urge toward social conformity? / Solomon Asch
  •  Life is a dramatically enacted thing /  Goffman
  •  The more you see it, the more you like it / Robert Zajonc
  •  Who likes competent women? / Janet Taylor Spenoe
  •  Flashbulb memories are fired by events of high emotionality / Roger Brown
  • The goal is not to advance knowledge, but to be in the know / Seige Moscovici
  • We are, by nature, social beings / William Olasser
  •  We believe people get what they deserve / Melvin Leinei
  • People who do crazy things are not necessarily crazy / Elliot Aronson
  •  People do what they are told to do / Stanley Milgiam
  • What happens when you put good people in an evil place? / Philip Zimbardo
  • Trauma must be understood in terms of the relationship between the individual and society /Ignacio Martin-Baro

DEVELOPMENTAL PHILOSOPHY: FROM INFANT TO ADULT

  •  The goal of education is to create men and women who are capable of doing new things / Jean Piaget
  • We become ourselves through others / Lev Vygotsky
  • A child is not beholden to any particular parent / Bruno Bettelheim
  • Anything that grows has a ground plan / Erik Erikson
  • Early emotional bonds are an integral part of human nature / John Bowiby
  • Contact comfort is overwhelmingly important / Harry Harlow
  • We prepare children for a life about whose course we know nothing / Frangoise Dolto
  • A sensitive mother creates a secure attachment / Mary Ainsworth
  • Who teaches a child to hate and fear a member of another race? / Kenneth Clark
  • Girls get better grades than boys / Eleanor E. Maccoby
  • Most human behavior is learned through modeling / Albert Bandura
  • Morality develops in six stages / Lawrence Kohlberg
  • The language organ grows like any other body organ / Noam Chomsky
  • Autism is an extreme form of the male brain / Simon Baron-Coben

PSYCHOLOGY OF DIFFERENCE: PERSONALITY AND INTELLIGENCE

  • Name as many uses as you can think of for a toothpick / J.P. Ouilford
  •  Did Robinson Crusoe lack personality traits before the advent of Friday? / Gordon Allport
  • General intelligence consists of both fluid and crystallized intelligence / Raymond Cattell
  • There is an association between insanity and genius / Hans J. Eysenck
  •  Three key motivations drive performance / David C. McClelland
  • Emotion is an essentially unconscious process
  • Behavior without environmental cues would be absurdly chaotic /
    Walter Mischel
  • We cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric hospitals / David Rosenhan
  • The three faces of Eve / Thigpen & Cleckley

Language: English
Pages: 354